POLITICAL DEMOGRAPHY 613
enormous population size of some developing states and the small and dispersed populations of others make the problem of establishing and maintaining central government authority both different and more difficult. Moreover, the opportunities for international migration which permitted more than 60 million dissatisfied and disaffected Europeans to leave the continent are not available to more than a handful of highly skilled technical people in the developing world. The policy option of coping with minority problems by exporting minorities is thus not one available to more than a few developing countries. Internal migration within multi-ethnic states, as also noted earlier, creates problems which hardly existed in more culturally homogeneous societies. Thus, some of the major problems of political development which concern political scientists—the growth of demands and the creation of political institutions to meet these demands, the problems of establishing governmental authority and legitimacy, and the problems of managing ethnic conflict and creating a national civic sense—are all ones which involve population variables.
Finally, if political science continues to develop as it has in the past, it will be increasingly influenced by the enormous progress in demography and by the expansion of historical population studies (83). As perhaps the most syncretistic of the social sciences, political science has readily borrowed from related disciplines, as shown by the existence of political sociology, political anthropology, political psychology, and political economy as branches of political science. In each instance, political scientists have both borrowed and contributed, and some of the most fruitful developments in these fields have come either through the collaboration of scholars in related disciplines or through the efforts of individual scholars to bring the related disciplines together. A similar opportunity now exists for the development of political demography.
1. United Nations, The Determinants and Consequences of Population
Trends. New York: U.N., Population Division, Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, 1953. p. 21.
2. Higham, John, "American Immigration Policy in Historical Perspective,"
Law and Contemporary Problems, Spring 1956. p. 214.
3. Myrdal, Gunnar, Population: A Problem for Democracy. 1940; reprint
ed. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1962. p. 22.
4. Myrdal, Gunnar, Asian Drama: An Inquiry into the Poverty of Nations, 3
vols. New York: Pantheon, Random House, 1968. Especially Chs. 27 and 28.
5. Marshall, T. H., "What the Public Thinks," The Population Problem: the
Experts and the Public. T. H. Marshall et a/., eds. London: George Allend in this essay. A member of Durkheim's school, Maurice Halbwaeh, developed the notion further (82). lie proposed that a subfield, "political morphology," be established focusing on the location and distribution of people in space us a determinant of the structure and functions of government. To the best of my knowledge, this aspect of Durkheim's work